Tuesday, July 14, 2009

Wireless Routing Protocol

The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) is a proactive unicast routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). WRP uses an enhanced version of the distance-vector routing protocol. Because of the mobile nature of the nodes within the MANET, the protocol introduces mechanisms which reduce route loops and ensure reliable message exchange.
WRP is a distance vector routing protocol. Each node maintains 4 tables:
Distance table
Routing table
Link cost table
Message Retransmission List table

The wireless routing protocol (WRP), similar to DSDV, inherits the properties of the distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm. To counter the count-to-infinity problem and to enable faster convergence, it employs a unique method of maintaining information regarding the shortest distance to every destination node in the network and the penultimate hop node on the path to every destination node. Since WRP, like DSDV, maintains an up-to-date view of the network, every node has a readily available route to every destination node in the network. It differs from DSDV in table maintenance and in the update procedures. While DSDV maintains only one topology table, WRP uses a set of tables to maintain more accurate information. The tables that are maintained by a node are the following: distance table (DT), routing table (RT), link cost table (LCT), and a message retransmission list (MRL).

The DT contains the network view of the neighbors of a node. It contains a matrix where each element contains the distance and the penultimate node reported by a neighbor for a particular destination. The RT contains the up-to-date view of the network for all known destinations. It keeps the shortest distance, the predecessor node (penultimate node), the successor node (the next node to reach the destination), and a flag indicating the status of the path. The path status may be a simple path (correct), or a loop (error), or the destination node not marked (null). The LCT contains the cost (e.g., the number of hops to reach the destination) of relaying messages through each link. The cost of a broken link is infinity. It also contains the number of update periods (intervals between two successive periodic updates) passed since the last successful update was received from that link. This is done to detect links breaks. The MRL contains an entry for every update message that is to be retransmitted and maintains a counter for each entry. This counter is decremented after every retransmission of an update message. Each update message contains a list of updates. A node also marks each node in the RT that has to acknowledge the update message it transmitted. Once the counter reaches zero, the entries in the update message for which no acknowledgments have been received are to be retransmitted and the update message is deleted. Thus, a node detects a link break by the number of update periods missed since the last successful transmission. After receiving an update message, a node not only updates the distance for transmission neighbors but also checks the other neighbors’ distance, hence convergence is much faster than DSDV.


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